A product of physics, mathematics and computer science combined together, quantum computing, in the past two decades, has evolved from a visionary idea to one of the most fascinating areas of quantum mechanics. First proposed in the 1970s, quantum computing relies on quantum physics by taking advantage of certain quantum physics properties of atoms or nuclei that allow them to work together as quantum bits, or qubits, to be the computer’s processor and memory. By interacting with each other while being isolated from the external environment, qubits can perform certain calculations exponentially faster than conventional computers.
Why the Trend?
There are quite a few reasons for the trend getting more and more famous and followed. Quantum computing is much faster and has much more potential to perform highly complex and difficult tasks without any “side effects.”
Some algorithms that are extremely difficult to formulate can be formulated with the help of quantum computing. Moreover, quantum communication guarantees security of information by allowing information to be sent without eavesdroppers listening undetected.
Again, instead of processing data using bits and bytes in silicon chips, the quantum computing approach uses laser pulses to excite atoms, a process that allows scientists to harness the power of atoms and meet the demand for more complex mathematical computations.
All this is possible because of one basic difference between traditional computing and quantum computing. Quantum computing uses the rules of quantum mechanics to compute as against the traditional computing which uses the binary nature of computing.
Quantum bits, called qubits, are different from regular bits, because they don’t just have two states. They can have multiple states, superpositions—they can be 0 or 1 or 0-1 or 0+1 or 0 and 1, all at the same time. It’s a lot deeper than a regular old bit. A qubit’s ability to exist in multiple states opens up the door of possibility for computational extravaganza because it can factor numbers at tremendously fast speeds than standard computers.
How is it Useful to Us?
Because quantum computing works at exceedingly high speeds, it can be easily adapted and applied to different aspects of technologies. The laws of quantum are based on Superposition Principle i.e. atoms are present in many form of energy. Quantum computers are able to perform non-classical logic operations and can be used to solve computationally intractable problems that cannot be solved by conventional massively parallel supercomputers. That’s the reason why one of the major applications of quantum computing is data encryption.
The Future of Quantum Computing
Though quantum computing has its own inherent disadvantages, it is very useful in the field of quantum physics, and therefore the future of quantum computing is extremely bright. The two main challenges are development of the software and error correction. Again, it’s an expensive technology which does not make an attractive proposition for everyone. However, if the problems are overcome the day is not far when we can achieve all technologies of the world.
Source: Gizmo Watch